The plant is a modern agricultural sustainable production system built with high technology. In this production system, the use of three-dimensional cultivation technology for annual production, plant yield is the traditional agricultural production of several times or even hundreds of times, the output of the plant quality to achieve green or even organic quality. At present, only a few developed countries in Japan, the United States and the Netherlands have mastered the technology, including Japanese science and technology enterprises to build a large number of plant factories
China's plant factory development time is still short, still in scientific research, testing, demonstration stage. But the plant factory as a new agricultural production model, has begun in the flowers, vegetables and other varieties of cultivation and is more and more people to accept. In the future, with the change of China's agricultural industry environment, the increase of urban population and the further reduction of plant factory application cost, the plant factory is expected to usher in the golden period of development.
From "Mars Rescue" to the plant factory
The movie "Mars Rescue" in this scene: astronaut Mark is a botanical expert, when he was left alone Mars, in order to overcome the threat of survival, began in the absence of appropriate soil and air conditions, step by step manual cover A potato production plant, with their own excreta and artificial water to grow potatoes. Finally, the astronauts on Mars alone in the Mars desert planted potatoes, and rely on potatoes, eat potatoes survive 500 days.
After reading "Mars Rescue", many people began to imagine how to rely on scientific wisdom in the barren desert to feed themselves. Astronaut Mark paved the Martian soil in the Martian base to produce precious potatoes. In real life, some people in the tall buildings, high cost of land in China built a plant plant.
Taiwanese Xiao Juncheng from 2013 to start in Beijing CBD to create "plant". This piece is located in the East Third Ring high-grade office space underground "vegetable" about 50 square meters, narrow space neatly placed a row of four high shelves, through the DC cold light LED lighting and flow of nutrients to cultivate vegetables , A month to harvest fresh vegetables a jin. As a result of the use of clean room production, get rid of soil pollution, water pollution and air pollution, to ensure the quality of vegetables, more and more people began to seek cooperation. Due to the large demand, Xiao Juncheng and Fengtai Guo Gongzhuang in Beijing to build another "plant" to meet more and more enterprises, office buildings, restaurants and family requirements.
In the impression of people, China has a vast land, you can cultivate a lot of fruit and vegetable products, as if the distance between plant cultivation and technology is still relatively far away. But the real situation is more complicated. Industry experts said that China's Daejeon open field agricultural production system, although larger, but its production capacity and stability has been low. Among the reasons, the quantity and quality of land, water and fertilizer, human resources are declining from the quantity and quality of agricultural production resources.
In addition, due to agricultural environmental pollution, frequent natural disasters, seasonal interference. Daejeon agriculture is interfered with by the season, and in northern China it is impossible to carry out field farming in the winter, and even if greenhouse cultivation is used, the human intervention is poor. For example, in late December last year, affected by haze weather, Changping District, Beijing greenhouse greenhouse lighting generally lack of strawberry growth and development have been greatly affected, time to market than the original plan to postpone for about half a month.
Based on the above reasons, although the facilities and agriculture in China have been vigorously developed, but this low-end facilities agriculture, including plastic greenhouses, solar greenhouse, its production and stability has been relatively poor, yield and stable potential is limited, then how can man Control of light, water, nutrients, temperature and other conditions to improve fruit and vegetable production and quality? Combined with the current human technology, the solution can only be the development of "plant".
The "plant factory" is defined as a system of continuous production of crops through high-precision environmental control in the facility, which is not subject to natural conditions and is an efficient agricultural production. Premier Li Keqiang suggested that it would be necessary to "promote agriculture by upgrading the innovative agricultural production system and upgrading the level of agricultural equipment and developing the agriculture with the concept of industry" in 2015. Only through this method, we can use limited resources, limited space to produce more food and food.
April 20, the seventeenth China (Shouguang) International Vegetable Science and Technology Expo opened in Shouguang. The "plant factory" of the 10th exhibition hall is a model project. The plant is a real-time monitoring and automatic control of the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, light, carbon dioxide concentration and nutrient solution for plant growth by using the Internet of Things system. The plant fertility is not affected by or rarely subject to natural conditions. produce. Its intelligent precision collection system can collect temperature and humidity, humidity, soil pH, fertility index, farm residue and other data in real time. Intelligent water saving and fertilizer control system can control intelligent water valve according to soil fertility index and pH degree.
In addition, the plant will also be applied to the plant solar photovoltaic power plant, in addition to the LED plant fill light system, but also applied to the nutrient solution circulatory system, biological insecticidal lights and automated control systems, effectively reduce the cost of plant plants The
Japanese science and technology enterprises to build a large number of plant factories
The plant is a new agricultural production mode, can be widely used in flowers, vegetables, herbs and edible fungus cultivation and cultivation, the current technology is mainly the Netherlands, Japan, the United States and other developed countries to master, which is characterized by high-tech support, Crop cultivation can not be affected by or rarely subject to external natural conditions.
It is understood that plant plants can significantly increase the unit land use rate, output rate and economic benefits. Because of the high degree of automation, so it also has a production plan, so that agricultural products pollution and pollution, production operations effort. Plant plants can be produced in extreme environmental conditions, which is conducive to agriculture to get rid of resources and environmental constraints, to achieve sustainable development of agriculture. Therefore, the plant plant is considered to be an important way to solve the world's population population and environmental problems in the 21st century, and it is also an important way to realize food self-sufficiency in the future high-tech engineering (such as aerospace engineering and ocean exploration process).
In Japan, plant plants are widely used in Japan due to the growing aging of the population. In recent years, the Japanese science and technology industry to build a large number of plant plants, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Panasonic, Sharp and other electronics industry giants have the idle factory converted into high-tech greenhouse, planting sterile vegetables, many electronic engineers also transformed, New Age "Farmer".
Japanese nationals have had the habit of letting lettuce since ancient times, and lettuce and other leafy vegetables are particularly suitable for planting in plant plants. Some powerful companies have been involved in the development (such as Mitsubishi, Panasonic, etc.), every year new technology launch.
Take the Toshiba Clean Room Farm Yokosuka as an example. The farm is located in Yokosuka City, Kanagawa. It is converted from a four-storey building in the original floppy disk factory with an area of nearly 2,000 square meters. Cultivated green leafy vegetables are lettuce, lettuce, lettuce, Swiss beet, rapeseed, spinach, and so on. The plant plant from sowing to cultivation, the workers will be based on the growth stage of vegetables, carefully for each vegetable seedlings to change the cultivation of shed. During the sowing stage, the workers will seed the seed on the sponge of the small box and then in the hole of the tray. In the cultivation stage, with the growth of the plant, the small box will be changed to the hole on the larger tray. Changing the planting density according to the size of the plant and changing to a different height of the cultivated shed can make more efficient use of the space.
In addition, Fuji Electric, Panasonic, Fujitsu and other electronics factories also strive to advanced sensing technology, manufacturing technology used in plant plants, significantly reduce agricultural production costs. The use of energy-saving technology has become the driving force of small and medium enterprises to enter the plant, and plans to promote to the emerging countries to help its advanced agricultural development. For example, Fujitsu has been working with Aeon subsidiary AeonAgri Create and JICA to promote experimental plant farms in Vietnam since January 2016, with dozens of sensors built by Fujitsu, measuring real-time weather, soil and growth conditions The AeonAgri Create from which to analyze the data, through the network from Japan to remotely guide the Vietnamese farmers.
Panasonic launched the first indoor vegetable factory approved by the government in Singapore. Production varieties for the red leaves lettuce and other 10 kinds of vegetables, the annual output of 3.6 tons. The company will cooperate with the Japanese restaurant chain "big house" to the shops in Singapore to supply the factory production of vegetables.
Sharp has built a plant plant laboratory building for cultivation of strawberries in Dubai and has started experimenting. Now in developed countries, plant plants have entered the stage of industrialization, the relevant market has formed a manufacturing and supply industry chain, enterprises can easily from the retail channels to obtain seeds, nutrient solution, cultivation equipment and various supplies for planting.
The world is concerned about the "safe and secure food" is getting higher and higher, Japan and many other high-tech companies also intend to plant plants into a new export industry, and overseas large-scale large plant plants, while selling plant plant equipment and system. Plant factories for the Japanese manufacturing industry has also become a new economic growth in recent years.