Tunnel lighting  Design considerations factors are length, line type, interior, pavement type, no sidewalk, link road structure, design speed, traffic and car types, but also consider the light source light, Arrangement, lighting level, the brightness of the hole and the human eye to adapt to the state, tunnel lighting design is to solve this series of problems.
Energy saving is the most important energy-saving measures, which include the use of innovative and reliable design concepts and energy-saving lighting, energy-saving lighting, energy saving and energy saving, Reasonable standard values, as well as the use of efficient light source, efficient lighting, increase the light reflectance and lighting control and energy saving. LED contrast traditional light source, the biggest advantage is energy saving and stability, so based on the advantages and characteristics of LED to improve the efficiency of LED chips, reasonable light distribution design to enhance the overall performance of the lamp, LED tunnel lighting is currently needed to solve the important problem.
LED light source is to measure the efficiency of its tunnel light source efficiency of the basic indicators, according to the LED tunnel lights in the actual requirements, the use of luminous efficiency to meet a certain level to meet the replacement of traditional road lighting source sodium lamp, metal halide lamp needs.
In recent years, with the LED chip, packaging and lighting technology with the continuous development of light, LED light source efficiency has been raised to a new level of high, such as Spark series LED tunnel lights, the use of high-quality chip, reasonable light distribution and structural design, Has been much higher than the current LED tunnel light products.
There are visual problems in ordinary tunnels：
(1) Before entering the tunnel (daylight): As the brightness inside and outside the tunnel is very different, so from the outside of the tunnel, the lighting is not abundant tunnel entrance will see the "black hole" phenomenon.
(2) After entering the tunnel (day): the car from the outside into the hall even if not too dark after the tunnel, to go through a certain time to see the situation inside the tunnel, known as the "compliance lag" phenomenon.
(3) tunnel exit: in the day, the car through the longer tunnel close to the exit, because the exit to see the external brightness is extremely high, the exit looks like a "white hole", will show a strong glare, the driver Will feel uncomfortable; night and day just the opposite, the tunnel exit is not a bright hole but a black hole, so the driver can not see the external road line and the obstacles on the road.
Several of the above special visual problems to the tunnel lighting made a higher request to effectively deal with these visual problems, can go through the following aspects.
Tunnel lighting is divided into five sections: the introduction section, the compliance section, the transition section, the basic section and the exit section. Each section has different roles:
(1) the introduction of paragraph: to eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon, so that the driver can identify obstacles in the hole; to day, for example, assuming that the tunnel mouth environment brightness of 4000cd / m2, speed 80KM / H, then meet the minimum request The length and brightness of the segments are 40 m and 80 cd / m2, respectively.
(2) compliance section: After entering the tunnel, the driver can quickly comply with and eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon; according to the above conditions, compliance section length and brightness were 40 meters and 80 ~ 46cd / m2.
(3) transition section: the driver gradually comply with the tunnel internal lighting; according to the above conditions, the transition section length and brightness were 40 meters and 40 ~ 4.5cd / m.
(4) the basic paragraph: the basic lighting inside the tunnel.
(5) the export section: in the day, so that the driver can gradually follow the exit of the light, to eliminate the "white hole" phenomenon; at night, so that the driver can see the outside of the road path and the road obstacles , To eliminate the export of the "black hole" phenomenon, the common practice is to use the street lights as a continuous lighting.
In the daytime, the illumination level of the exit section of the tunnel will be higher than that of the tunnel in the tunnel. It should be higher than that in the tunnel. At night, on the contrary, it should be lower than that in the tunnel, When there is street lighting outside the tunnel, the road surface brightness value shall not be less than 2 times the open air brightness value.
Motor vehicle through the tunnel process：
1, near the tunnel process problems
Black hole phenomenon:
Day, the driver of the motor vehicle has been able to comply with the outdoor light up to 100000 lx or more thousands of cd / m2 natural light lighting, when the eyes go to the brightness of only a few cd / m2 tunnel environment, because the human eye on the brightness of the perception is limited, , Will see a black cave, and can not identify the state. Like this in the bright environment to see the phenomenon of black cave called black hole phenomenon. Once the phenomenon of black hole, with the motor vehicle close to the tunnel, the driver's visual interval is short, can not be safe driving. Black hole phenomenon is into the tunnel before the onset of visual problems, tunnel lighting is the most important issue. In order to avoid the occurrence of black hole phenomenon, from the beginning of the tunnel entrance to ensure that there is sufficient brightness, the local full length than the motor vehicle safety brake interval slightly longer.
Into the tunnel, due to the existence of a large brightness difference inside and outside, in line with the existence of delay, the driver can not quickly follow the tunnel vision, it is difficult to see the tunnel internal situation. In order to avoid this situation, should make the tunnel entrance brightness with the visual compliance speed slow down, the brightness to a smooth transition, the brightness to stop step by step, but the previous level brightness and the brightness of the latter level ratio must not exceed 3: 1, and 2m high The brightness of the following walls can not be lower than the corresponding uniform road brightness.
2, after the tunnel process problems：
The brightness of the daylight in the tunnel is higher than that of the night road, and the brightness of the night is lower than that of the day. If the exhaust gas can not quickly dissipate the composition of the smoke, the light absorption and scattering, reduce the visibility, and make the visual identification difficult, the front of the car by the automobile exhaust a great impact, can not meet the recognition of the exhaust gas in the long tunnel, Sexual demand, the front 100m road brightness halved, usually 2 times the brightness of road lighting to compensate for the impact of tail gas.
3, close to the tunnel when the export problems：
After export to see the external brightness is extremely high, the exit looks like a bright hole, showing a serious glare, exports into a white cave, which is called the white hole phenomenon; to white hole as the background, motor vehicles and so became black silhouette is easy to identify , But with the large box-type trucks behind the car and large trucks silhouette coincidence is difficult to see, in the traffic flow large tunnel exit near, in order to identify coincident with the size of the vehicle made lighting known as export lighting, export The length of the interval is tens of meters.
4, before leaving the tunnel before the problems presented：
At night, from the bright tunnel to the road without lighting before the tunnel has become a black hole, can not see the road line and the existence of obstacles, this time, should be just out of the tunnel on the road, in the More than the safety brake interval, about the equivalent of a few seconds driving the motor vehicle within the interval, the road to stop lighting to reach the appropriate degree of brightness.
Application of LED products in tunnels：
LED applications In the tunnel lighting, Spark LED tunnel lights will enter the tunnel with the strength of the light automatically adjust the intensity of the intelligent lighting control system. Compared to the traditional plan, complete 50% energy saving, and the light source life is 6-8 times the traditional tunnel lighting, greatly reducing the cost of light and routine maintenance costs.
Edit this paragraph lighting indicators：
Tunnel lighting and ordinary road lighting is different because of its 24 hours a day must be lit, daytime lighting intensity than the night lighting intensity but stronger, can be similar to the tunnel power costs become an important part of operating costs; plus tunnel lighting different In the general road lighting, has its obvious special nature, including the ability to adapt to the light and shade, light and dark transition space and lighting, etc .; these are reflected in the tunnel lighting design, but also the safety of the user is inseparable Relationship. Tunnel lighting is usually divided into entrance lighting, internal lighting and export lighting. Which the requirements of the entrance lighting is very strict, requiring similar brightness from the outside world gradually reduced. Specifically, the brightness of the daytime tunnel entrance lighting is determined by the brightness, speed, the field of view at the entrance, and the length of the tunnel. The International Institute of Illumination (CIE) divides the tunnel entrance lighting into threshold sections (transition points from the tunnel) and transition sections. The threshold is to eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon, so that the driver can clearly identify the obstacles in the hole, the tunnel transition section of the lighting is to avoid the threshold section of the lighting and internal changes between the basic lighting set, the lighting level further decline The The tunnel lighting standards in Japan, the tunnel entrance lighting will be further divided into the introduction section, to adapt to the transition section.
The inner section is the area within the tunnel that is far from the influence of the external natural light. The driver's vision is only affected by the lighting inside the tunnel. The interior section is characterized by a wide range of uniform lighting levels. Since the illumination level is not changed at all in this section, only the appropriate level of brightness is provided in the segment, and the specific value is determined by the traffic flow and the vehicle speed. The distribution and brightness of the inlet, transition, inner and outlet sections of the tunnel.
Highway tunnel lighting has its own characteristics, it is not the same with ordinary road lighting. In the design need to consider the following points:
1. The road surface should have a certain brightness level
2. Tunnel walls should have a certain level of brightness
3. Design speed, traffic, route line and many other factors
4. From the aspects of traffic safety and comfort, etc. to determine the level of lighting
5. Human visual adaptability, especially the tunnel entrance section, exit section, etc.
6. Tunnel day also need lighting, and daytime lighting problems are more complicated than the night.
To achieve energy conservation in tunnel lighting, improve lighting effects and ensure the safety and comfort of traffic, usually from the following aspects to consider:
Because the brightness of the daytime tunnel is much higher than that in the tunnel, when the driver enters the tunnel by the driver, the visual needs a certain amount of adaptation time before the tunnel can be seen. This phenomenon is called "adaptive hysteresis "If there is no appropriate transition, it will produce a black hole phenomenon, so that the driver temporarily lost normal visual function, which will bring some security risks. The black hole phenomenon is the visual problem that occurs before entering the tunnel, and is also the most important problem in tunnel lighting. For this tunnel lighting is usually divided into entrance lighting, internal lighting and export lighting. The brightness of the entrance during daylight tunneling is determined by the brightness, speed, the field of view at the entrance, and the length of the tunnel. The threshold segment is to eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon, the transition section of the lighting level is further declining, so as to provide the driver with visual dark adaptation time.
(2) brightness uniformity
Good visual function not only requires a better average brightness, but also requires the average brightness on the road and the minimum brightness can not be between the difference is too large. If the brightness difference in the field of view is too large, the bright part will form a glare source, and bright and dark changes will bring a certain stroboscopic effect, and then affect the visual, visual effects of the human eye will be significantly worse, and visual Fatigue will increase.
The overall brightness uniformity U0 is the ratio of the minimum brightness to the average brightness on the road surface of the tunnel. The vertical uniformity U1 is the ratio of the minimum road surface brightness and the maximum road surface brightness on the lane axis. If the road is continuous, repeated appear bright and dark, that is, "zebra effect", for the road in the road on the road users, will feel very irritable. This problem involves the human mind, but also endanger the road safety, vertical uniformity is mainly used to evaluate the "zebra effect" size.
The formation of glare is due to the field of view there is a high brightness or brightness contrast exists, leaving the visual function or make the eyes feel uncomfortable. In the tunnel lighting glare can come from the front of the vehicle headlights, tunnel lighting, tunnel exit outside the high brightness and so on. Glare will make people the ability to identify obstacles to damage, endanger traffic safety. Tunnel lighting should be used to cut light, to eliminate direct and reflective glare of the special technical measures to form a diffuse reflection, so that the light is very soft into the human eye.
The International Commission on Illumination uses a relative threshold increment (TI) to illustrate the decline in visual function due to glare, that is, the measurement of disability glare. (CR 14380: 2003E), the requirements for disability glare are as follows: the relative threshold increment (TI) must be less than 15% for the tunnel threshold segment and the inner section and the entire tunnel at night, as defined by the EU Standards Committee's tunnel lighting standard (CR 14380: 2003E) .
(4) strobe effect
Stroboscopic means that in longer tunnels, due to the discontinuities in the arrangement of the luminaire, the driver is constantly disturbed by the stimulus of light and shade. It has a bright and dark brightness changes, changes in the frequency of light and shade, the total time of the relationship between strobe. The three are related to the optical characteristics of the lamps used, the speed of the vehicle, the installation distance of the luminaire, and the length of the tunnel. In general, the strobe frequency is less than 2.5 and greater than 15Hz when the strobe phenomenon is acceptable.
If the speed of the vehicle is 60km / h or 16.6m / s, the installation distance of the lamp is 4, so the frequency of strobe is about 4.2Hz. When designing, it should be considered, select the appropriate installation distance of the lighting fixture. If the frequency of strobe between 4Hz and 11Hz, and the duration of more than 20s, will give the driver a significant discomfort.
(5) lighting control
Advanced lighting control is to ensure that the visual conditions, to meet the requirements of the tunnel lighting, reasonable energy saving important skills. The purpose of lighting control is to change the lighting level of the tunnel at any time. Due to cloudy, rainy or dusk, the brightness of the tunnel is much smaller than usual, so there should be appropriate measures to reduce the level of the entrance section of the lighting to reduce unnecessary energy waste. In the tunnel lighting can be based on daytime, night and traffic flow and other factors, through a variety of dimming equipment or control devices to the tunnel lighting environment illumination or light to open, close to adjust and control. At present, most of the foreign use of photosensitive devices, adjustable optical electronic rectifier and other intelligent lighting system, so that the overall brightness of the tunnel lights weakened, lower energy consumption; the same time, to ensure uniformity of the tunnel brightness uniformity. Spark patented intelligent LED tunnel lights can achieve computer dimming, temperature control, automatic inspection, elevation / horizontal angle adjustable function. Lighting efficiency 80lm / W, energy saving rate of 70%.
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