Incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps, high-pressure mercury lamps and other traditional light sources, applied to agriculture and biological fields, the existence of low biological light efficiency, high energy consumption and higher operating costs of the lack of artificial light plant plants as an example, the cost of light source is about the system operating costs $number. Compared with the traditional illumination, the LED light source can form the peak spectra absorbed by the plant photosynthesis and its conformation. With high efficiency, low energy consumption, no mercury pollution, accurate wavelength, intelligent system control and other advantages, the system energy-saving up to 50%, in the greenhouse light, plant tissue culture, plant and genetic breeding in many fields has a broad application prospects.（1.2M linear light)
In this paper, the standards of LED illumination for plant growth are reviewed, and the framework of LED illumination standard system is discussed. National Semiconductor lighting Engineering Development and Industry Alliance (CSA) since 2012, plant growth with LED lighting standardization work, 2013 issue of the 1th group standard T Csa021-2013 "performance requirements of LED flat lamps for plant growth", after the promotion of the development of national standards Gb t3265 "plant growth LED lighting terms and definitions", group standard T Csa 032-2016 "Plant lighting LED lamps general technical specifications" and so on.
Group Standard T Csa 021-2013 "performance requirements for LED flat lamps for plant growth"
Plant growth with LED lighting products in many forms, such as flat-panel lights, dual-end lights, flexible lights, and so on, and will gradually change with the development of technology. Before and after the 2013, led flat lamp mainly used in the group to cultivate seedlings. The standard specifies the terms and definitions of LED flat lamps for plant growth, classification and nomenclature, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, marking, packaging, transportation and storage. The standard content shows that the basic measurement index of LED light source for plant growth is different from the parameters of life illumination.
The standard defines the main radiation wavelength of LED flat lamps for plant growth, which refers to the blue-violet radiation bands of the Red-orange radiation Band and the 400 of the radiation wavelength range of 600, which defines the blue-violet irradiance, the irradiance of red-orange is defined, and the illumination ratio of red-blue is defined. The standard is based on the physical quantity of the total radiation flux (unit: w), total radiation illuminance (unit: $literal), in order to support the plant growth LED lighting in the field of production, testing, Acceptance and other work. The standard defines the photosynthetic photon flux density [units: Sumol I (M S)] refers to the number of photons within a certain wavelength range of light emitted by a plant in the unit area when photosynthesis occurs, but the technical requirements are not reflected in the number of photons received by plants for photosynthesis to be poorly measured.（customized linear light)
This standard puts forward the GB7000 basic safety requirements of the LED flat lamp which should conform to the plant growth, and the control device conforms to the GB19510.14, GB/t 24825 requirements, electromagnetic compatibility performance requirements; In terms of electrical characteristics, power and power factor requirements are specified; In terms of radiation performance, the initial radiation flux/radiation efficiency, radiation intensity distribution, radiation illumination and red-blue irradiance ratio and irradiance uniformity are specified. In the radiation spectrum, Life characteristics and other aspects of the requirements.
Group Standard T Csa 032-2016 "General technical Specification for LED luminaires for plant lighting"
This standard focuses on the general technical performance and evaluation index of LED lighting products. Because of the wide variety of lamps and lanterns used in plant illumination industry, the specifications and models are different, and the performance quality is mixed, so it is urgent to establish the criterion of judging and evaluating the performance indexes. As this industry belongs to new industries, the early introduction of relevant standards, easy to guide the development of industrial technology and product positioning, but because some of the technical performance evaluation is not mature, some parameters (such as photon flux efficiency, spectral distribution of light sources and plant spectra of the degree of coincidence) need to be further improved.
According to the requirements of the application environment, this standard supplements the terms of C3 plants, C4 plants, cam plants, etc. according to the plant photosynthetic cycle pattern. The LED lamps used in plant illumination were classified according to the lamp use, plant photosynthesis mode and control mode. The safety performance, structure appearance, electrical properties (power, power factor), optical performance, reliability and electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps for plant growth are regulated, and the photon flux efficiency of the luminaire is graded, and the detection method is given for technical requirements.
In the structural appearance requirement, the anti-corrosion of the luminaire surface (reach WF2), anti-ultraviolet aging and so on are put forward. In the optical performance requirements, the photon flux and photon flux efficiency [measured values should not be less than 0.] Mi Mol Island (S W)], spectral distribution, distribution curve and other parameters requirements; The reliability part is mainly aimed at the photon flux maintenance rate and environmental adaptability. In the energy efficiency grading of lamps, the first corresponding high-pressure sodium lamp [1. Mun Mol (S W)] and fluorescent lamp [ 1.3 (S W) The key point of photon flux efficiency the photon flux efficiency of LED light source is divided into three categories: one kind [Chippi 1. Mun Mol (S W)], two classes [1.3 (S W) Shing. Mun Mol (S W)] and three categories [0. Mi Mol Island (S W) Shing. 3 (S W)]. Secondly, according to the spectral distribution of light source, according to the degree of coincidence, the light source can be divided into 3 categories or 3 levels. The Division of Energy Efficiency classification takes into account the photon flux efficiency of the light source and the coincidence degree of the spectral distribution 2 factors, combined with the above 2 factors, energy efficiency is divided into 3 3 classes 9.
GB/t 32655-2016 "plant growth LED lighting terms and definitions"
The terms of the standard definition are generally divided into 2 parts: part is about the content of plant growth, mainly from the production, teaching and research in China is the use of terminology, this part of the content is first formulated at home and abroad; The other part relates to the terminology involved in LED products and testing, citing some of the terms in IEC 60050 and GB/T 24826-2016 (IDT IEC62504) standards to ensure harmonization of standard systems. The confusing terminology of the standard is interpreted as follows:
Terminology relating to (electromagnetic) radiant Energy
In order to describe the performance of radiation sources, radiant energy and related terms were introduced. Radiant energy is defined as the emission or propagation of Shine in the form of electromagnetic Waves (unit: j)
These terms are introduced to describe the nature of the radiation source, in order to describe the time characteristics of radiant energy to increase the "flux" definition, radiation flux that is the unit time of the radiation power; In order to describe the directional characteristics of radiation flux, we should increase the definition of "intensity", the intensity is the radiation flux of the point radiation source, the direction of the unit stereo angle, the radiation flux emitted by the unit area, the radiant brightness is the radiant flux of the unit area.
The only illumination described is the radiation received by the object, radiation illuminance is the unit area received radiation flux, to plant light, this is a very important physical volume, also known as flux density, its significance is no less than illumination to the importance of human eyes.
There are many physical quantities related to photon quantity, according to quantum mechanics, photon has wave-particle two-image, Photon energy E is
H is the Planck constant, the Nu is the electromagnetic wave frequency. So as long as the above radiation measurement is changed to photon quantity, all the relations are established.
The photon quantity is used in the research, the radiation quantity is used for industrial and agricultural production. Each can be converted, each has its advantages.
The spectral distribution (radiation, light measure, or photon x (λ))/optical/spectral intensity is defined as: at the wavelength λ, containing the radiation or optical metric or photon volume dx (λ) in the wavelength interval De of λ and the quotient of the wavelength interval:
Units: [Xu H M, such as W, Lm M, etc. Spectral response function Dr (λ) is similar in meaning. The amount of radiation from plant photosynthesis can extend a range of terms.
Photosynthetic effective radiation
Photosynthetic effective radiation is defined as: a specific wavelength of radiation that can be used for plant photosynthesis. Photosynthetic effective radiation is the basis of plant irradiance.
Photosynthetic Photon fluxes
The photosynthetic photon flux is defined as: The photon fluxes that can be used for plant photosynthesis [unit: Sumol I (M S)].
In the field of plant physiology, the number of photons is usually expressed in micro-molar (Sumol), 1 Mol 6.023 X 1017 A photon, 1mol represents 6.023 X 1023 a photon.
Photon flux density of photosynthesis
The photosynthetic photon flux density is defined as the photon flux density that can be used for photosynthesis of plants.
Photosynthetic rate is defined as: plant photosynthesis, unit time in the unit leaf area of the absorption of the amount of Co. or Release o, or photosynthetic products of dry matter accumulation, units have Sumol I (M S), Sumol I (M H) and G (M H) and so on.
The photosynthetic rate is divided into total photosynthetic rate and the rate of photosynthesis (net photosynthetic rate) because of the simultaneous respiration of plant photosynthesis. The total photosynthetic rate is the algebraic sum of the rate of sightseeing and respiration.
Quantum efficiency/Quantum yield
Quantum efficiency is defined as: The amount of photosynthetic product (i.e. the number of molecules that are fixed or released by a photon) in photosynthesis. The quantum efficiency can be divided into apparent quantum efficiency and actual quantum efficiency because of the different calculation methods.
Relative quantum efficiency curve (photosynthesis)
The relative quantum efficiency curve (photosynthesis) is defined as the relationship between the photosynthetic rate and wavelength of the plant, which is produced by the unit photon flux density at each wavelength. The wavelength range of radiation is 400. A schematic diagram of the relative quantum efficiency curve is shown in Fig. 2.
Photosynthetic spectral response curve (photosynthesis)
The photosynthetic spectral response curve (photosynthesis) is defined as the relationship between the photosynthetic rate of plants (net) and the wavelength of the unit irradiance at each wavelength.
Relative photosynthetic spectral response curve (photosynthesis)
The relative photosynthetic spectral response curve (photosynthesis) is normalized to the photosynthetic spectral response curve, and its schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 3.
The response curve of photosynthesis is the basis of plant radiation, and it can build up the main physical quantity of plant illumination.
The above-mentioned quantum efficiency curve and photosynthetic response curve are very important, which is the basis of plant illumination evaluation.
Radiation Measurement System
The radiation measurement system is a system for measuring the amount of radiation energy. The system is measured in units of radiation flux Watts (w). Radiation, light measure, photon quantity and photosynthetic radiation amount--these 4 kinds of quantities have the same basic symbol, in order to distinguish the subscript e (energy), V (Vision), p (photon), ph (photosynthetic), such as: Shine, Chive, Ship, Huaph. For historical reasons, the wavelength range of photosynthetic effective radiation is usually 320 for the measurement of photosynthesis in plants.
Optical Measurement System
The optical measurement system evaluates the measurement system of radiation by the given spectral light apparent efficiency function, such as V (λ) (Fig. 4). In Lumens (LM), the wavelength range is 380. The measurement system is not suitable for measuring photosynthesis radiation of plant.
Quantum measurement systems (the amount of photosynthetic radiation)
The quantum measurement system is based on the quantum efficiency curve of the given photosynthetic Rque, and the measurement system of the radiation quantity is evaluated. The system is measured in the unit Sumol I (M S) of photon flux density.
Photosynthetic measurement system (photosynthetic radiation)
The photosynthetic measurement system is based on a given photosynthetic spectral response curve to evaluate the radiation content of photosynthesis. The system is measured by the unit of photon radiation flux.
Photosynthetic metric conversion factor (CVF)
Various photosynthetic measurement systems can be converted by photosynthetic metric conversion factors.
In the formula, the Qui is the spectral radiation emitted by the radiation source at each unit wavelength interval Shang. R (λ) is the relative photosynthetic spectral response of the corresponding metric system. The formula also applies to the conversion between different response curves of the same metric system. The relation between radiation volume, photosynthetic radiation (plant), photosynthetic photon quantity (plant) can be analogous to the relationship between radiation and light measurement (human eye vision), as shown in Figure 5. The amount of radiation and luminosity can be transformed by the human visual Function V (λ). (relative) photosynthetic spectral response curve for photosynthetic radiation, the equivalent luminosity of the human eye function, through which radiation and photosynthetic radiation can be transformed. The amount of radiation and photosynthetic photon is transformed by the relative quantum efficiency curve.
The field of plant growth led illumination is different from general illumination in the aspects of LED light source, photoelectric parameter, plant photo-physiology reaction, usage environment, measurement method, and so on, which has many interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary applications. The existence of mixed use, borrowing, and the wrong use of the phenomenon, blurred, affecting the use of LED in the installation of agriculture and promotion, the standard for LED lighting in the application of the basic terminology of plant light definition and specification, to avoid the definition of confusion, terminology is not uniform, To ensure that plant growth LED lighting products in the field of production, inspection, acceptance, testing standards and unity, for the LED in China's agricultural standardization of application and promotion laid the foundation.
Discussion on the standard system of LED illumination for plant growth
The application of LED illumination in plant growth, such as facility seedling, leaf vegetable and fruit and vegetable, has the characteristics of cross field and Cross-industry, and it is the hotspot of current international research. In theory, we mainly study the influence mechanism of LED light environment on the growth and development of facility crops; in the LED light source technology, the main research work in the LED light Formula parameter optimization, the light efficiency enhancement, the intelligent control technology and so on. Standardization is an important means to promote the industrialization of scientific research and to support the development of industrial norms. The establishment of the standard system is dynamic, and needs to be considered in the near and long-term, with the development of technology can be adjusted appropriately. Fig. 6 shows the standard system of LED illumination for plant growth, and the standard formulation recommendations are carried out in various forms, including standards, technical reports, and the transformation of integrated services and scientific and technological achievements.
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