Led tunnel lightis a kind of tunnel light, it is used in tunnels, workshops, large warehouses, venues, metallurgy and various factories, construction and other places large area flood lighting, the most suitable for urban landscape, billboards, Face for landscaping lighting.
With the rapid development of road traffic construction in China, the construction scale and quantity of highway tunnels are also increasing. Tunnel lighting is also a problem such as energy saving and safety. With the development of LED light source technology, Lighting industry has also carried out LED in the highway tunnel lighting application research and application practice, therefore, in tunnel lighting combined with advanced control mode, the use of high luminous efficiency, good stability, long life of a new generation of light source will become a demand And trends.
LED tunnel light is a kind of light energy saving lamp, the use of light-emitting diode (LED) as a light source, high luminous efficiency, long life, with different light distribution lens or reflector can be multi-purpose lighting.
LED and traditional tunnel lighting source comparison LED is a solid-state semiconductor devices, it can be directly converted into light, compared to the traditional road tunnel lighting (sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, etc.), LED light source has great advantages.
The first row: from left to right: the first five lights installed distance of 6 meters, irradiation 30 meters range; 6, 7, 8 lights installed distance of 10 meters, 30 meters range; The installation distance of the lamp is 14 meters, the irradiation is 14 meters, the installation distance of the 10th lamp is 15 meters, and the range is 15 meters. The middle lamp is installed at a distance of 18 meters and a total of 31 lamps, The total installation length is 6 * 5 + 10 * 3 + 14 * 1 + 15 * 1 +18 * 31 + 15 * 1 + 14 * 1 + 10 * 3 +6 * 5 = 736 meters, the total number of single row of lights: 5 +3 + 1 +1 +31 +1 + 1 +3 +5 = 51.
The second row: from left to right: 3 meters in the tunnel at the left of the distance, then the tunnel mouth, the installation of LED tunnel lights a; 2,3,4,5 light installation distance of 6 meters , The irradiation of 24 meters range; 6 lights installed distance of 8 meters, irradiation 8 meters range; 7,8 light installation distance of 10 meters, 20 meters range; 9 lights installed distance of 12 meters , The irradiation of 12 meters range; 10 lamp installation distance of 14.5 meters, 14.5 meters range of radiation; 11 lamp installation distance of 16.5 meters, irradiation 16.5 meters range; the middle of the LED tunnel lights to 18 meters / The total length is: 3 + 6 * 4 + 8 + 10 * 2 +12 + 14.5 +, the total length is: 3 + 6 * 4 + 8 + 10 * 2 + 12 + 14.5 + 16.5 + 18 * 30 + 16.5 + 14.5 + 12 + 10 * 2 + 8 + 6 * 4 + 3 = 736 meters, the total number of single row lights is: 1 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 30 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 4 + 1 = 52. Double row need a total of 51 +52 = 103 lights.
Tunnel lighting is different from ordinary road lighting, because its all-weather 24 hours must be lit, the daytime lighting intensity than the night lighting intensity but stronger, tunnel power costs become an important part of operating costs; plus tunnel lighting is different from the general Of the road lighting, has its obvious particularity, including the ability to adapt to the light and shade, light and dark transition space and lighting, etc .; these are reflected in the tunnel lighting design, but also the safety of the user has an inseparable relationship The Tunnel lighting is usually divided into entrance lighting, internal lighting and export lighting. Which the requirements of the entrance lighting is very strict, requiring similar brightness from the outside world gradually reduced. Specifically, the brightness of the daytime tunnel entrance lighting is determined by the brightness, speed, the field of view at the entrance, and the length of the tunnel. The International Institute of Illumination (CIE) divides the tunnel entrance lighting into threshold sections (transition points from the tunnel) and transition sections. The threshold is to eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon, so that the driver can clearly identify the obstacles in the hole, the tunnel transition section of the lighting is to avoid the threshold section of the lighting and internal changes between the basic lighting set, the lighting level further decline The The tunnel lighting standards in Japan, the tunnel entrance lighting will be further divided into the introduction section, to adapt to the transition section.
The inner section is the area within the tunnel that is far from the influence of the external natural light. The driver's vision is only affected by the lighting inside the tunnel. The interior section is characterized by a wide range of uniform lighting levels. Since the illumination level is not changed at all in this section, only the appropriate level of brightness is provided in the segment, and the specific value is determined by the traffic flow and the vehicle speed. The distribution and brightness of the inlet, transition, inner and outlet sections of the tunnel.
Highway tunnel lighting has its own characteristics, it is not the same with ordinary road lighting. In the design need to consider the following points:
1.The road surface should have a certain brightness level
2.Tunnel walls should have a certain level of brightness
3.Design speed, traffic volume, route line and many other factors
4.From the traffic safety and comfort, etc. to determine the level of lighting
5.Human visual adaptability, especially the tunnel entrance section, exit section and so on
6.Tunnel lighting during the day also need lighting, and daytime lighting problems are more complicated than the night.
To achieve energy conservation in tunnel lighting, improve lighting effects and ensure the safety and comfort of traffic, usually from the following aspects to consider:
Because the brightness of the daytime tunnel is much higher than that in the tunnel, when the driver enters the tunnel by the driver, the visual needs a certain amount of adaptation time before the tunnel can be seen. This phenomenon is called "adaptive hysteresis "If there is no appropriate transition, it will produce a black hole phenomenon, so that the driver temporarily lost normal visual function, which will bring some security risks. The black hole phenomenon is the visual problem that occurs before entering the tunnel, and is also the most important problem in tunnel lighting. For this tunnel lighting is usually divided into entrance lighting, internal lighting and export lighting. The brightness of the entrance during daylight tunneling is determined by the brightness, speed, the field of view at the entrance, and the length of the tunnel. The threshold segment is to eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon, the transition section of the lighting level is further declining, so as to provide the driver with visual dark adaptation time.
(2) brightness uniformity
Good visual function not only requires a better average brightness, but also requires the average brightness on the road and the minimum brightness can not be between the difference is too large. If the brightness difference in the field of view is too large, the bright part will form a glare source, and bright and dark changes will bring a certain stroboscopic effect, and then affect the visual, visual effects of the human eye will be significantly worse, and visual Fatigue will increase.
The overall brightness uniformity U0 is the ratio of the minimum brightness to the average brightness on the road surface of the tunnel. The vertical uniformity U1 is the ratio of the minimum road surface brightness and the maximum road surface brightness on the lane axis. If the road is continuous, repeated appear bright and dark, that is, "zebra effect", for the road in the road on the road users, will feel very irritable. This problem involves the human mind, but also endanger the road safety, vertical uniformity is mainly used to evaluate the "zebra effect" size.
The formation of glare is due to the field of view there is a high brightness or brightness contrast exists, leaving the visual function or make the eyes feel uncomfortable. In the tunnel lighting glare can come from the front of the vehicle headlights, tunnel lighting, tunnel exit outside the high brightness and so on. Glare will make people the ability to identify obstacles to damage, endanger traffic safety. Tunnel lighting should be used to cut light, to eliminate direct and reflective glare of the special technical measures to form a diffuse reflection, so that the light is very soft into the human eye.
(4) strobe effect
Stroboscopic means that in longer tunnels, due to the discontinuities in the arrangement of the luminaire, the driver is constantly disturbed by the stimulus of light and shade. It has a bright and dark brightness changes, changes in the frequency of light and shade, the total time of the relationship between strobe. The three are related to the optical characteristics of the lamps used, the speed of the vehicle, the installation distance of the luminaire, and the length of the tunnel. In general, the strobe frequency is less than 2.5 and greater than 15Hz when the strobe phenomenon is acceptable.
If the speed of the vehicle is 60km / h or 16.6m / s, the installation distance of the lamp is 4, so the frequency of strobe is about 4.2Hz. When designing, it should be considered, select the appropriate installation distance of the lighting fixture. If the frequency of strobe between 4Hz and 11Hz, and the duration of more than 20s, will give the driver a significant discomfort.
(5) lighting control
Advanced lighting control is to ensure that the visual conditions, to meet the requirements of the tunnel lighting, reasonable energy saving important skills. The purpose of lighting control is to change the lighting level of the tunnel at any time. Due to cloudy, rainy or dusk, the brightness of the tunnel is much smaller than usual, so there should be appropriate measures to reduce the level of the entrance section of the lighting to reduce unnecessary energy waste. In the tunnel lighting can be based on daytime, night and traffic flow and other factors, through a variety of dimming equipment or control devices to the tunnel lighting environment illumination or light to open, close to adjust and control. At present, most of the foreign use of photosensitive devices, adjustable optical electronic rectifier and other intelligent lighting system, so that the overall brightness of the tunnel lights weakened, lower energy consumption; the same time, to ensure uniformity of the tunnel brightness uniformity. Spark patented intelligent LED tunnel lights can achieve computer dimming, temperature control, automatic inspection, elevation / horizontal angle adjustable function. Lighting efficiency 80lm / W, energy saving rate of 70%.
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