Lighting area, as one of the faster growing agriculture lighting areas in recent years, LED by its high light efficiency, low fever, a lot of advantages such as small volume, long service life, the obvious advantages in the field of plant lighting lighting plants, etc. Also with the mature of LED lighting technology, companies from general lighting market has taken plant lighting, lighting plants has broad prospects.
So, in the process of development, what are the problems of LED plant lighting? What is the current proportion of LED in plant lighting? Compared with other light sources in plant lighting, what is the future trend of LED plant lighting? At the recent plant lighting conference, guests have discussed this in detail.
1. How to view the development of the whole plant lighting industry at present?
Fang Hui: plant lighting industry should be very optimistic for the future, from the plant product sales now, both introductory leaves and the ingredients of preserve one's health, and even will become the future trend of medicinal materials, whether in China or Taiwan, Japan, the price of these products is higher and higher, lighting plants must have a bright prospect in the future. The premise is that your product must be unique.
The product features, and the next thing that determines whether the industry succeeds or fails is whose business marketing model can be implemented smoothly. The life cycle of plant products is very short, but a lot of people won't sell, plant products can't sell, in fact, products need different routes. From fresh vegetables to processed products, from semi-finished products to finished products, when the products become diversified, the marketing channels become diversified. Sales naturally went up.
2. What is the total market share of LED in plant lighting?
Xian yulun: currently, the plant lighting used in the greenhouse is mainly high-voltage sodium lamp in the world, and fluorescent lamp in China. The LED lamp is actually used very little. In recent years, the application of LED in the field of cannabis has accelerated.
3. What are the advantages of vegetables grown with plant lighting compared with ordinary vegetables?
Jing-jing jiang: there are a few big characteristics, the first factory of the biggest characteristic is to use a plant vegetables very safe, only in a controlled environment with LED light on it, its environment and nutrient solution through manual control, it is beyond the green vegetables, and inside the plant factory don't have to use any pesticides, herbicides, our traditional nutrient solution to avoid the pollution of heavy metals in soil exist inside. The second feature is that because we are artificially creating shortcut environments, air is filtered, water is purified, dust and bacteria content is very low. The third characteristic is that the products of the plant factory are very fresh. Compared with the losses caused by the long-distance transportation of other traditional agriculture planting, the plant factory is located around the big city, and can be completed within 12 hours from harvest to table. The effect is the same as that of planting a seed dish at home.
In addition, compared with traditional agriculture, plant lighting factory can be customized. Traditional agriculture is limited by the fact that the climate and temperature change of the four seasons. Although the greenhouse can eat the products of different seasons, plant factory has no concept of season at all.
Fang wei: we should think like this: the value of vegetable plants is different from that of ordinary vegetables. In Taiwan, plant factory dishes are only subject to rigorous scientific standards. Indoor, the detection of air dust is a cubic centimeter of dust content of 100,000 technical standards, met this standard on the identification of clean. Clean room standard is every cubic centimeter have dust quantity of 10 thousand, and general food processing factory is 100 thousand, plant factory is not clean room, so plant factory satisfies the environmental requirement of food processing factory enough, the dish that this kind of environment grows already reached the standard that eats raw.
4. Are there any functional or performance defects in the vegetables grown in the plant factory? Will artificial planting change the structure of the dish, or other similar transgenic problems?
Fang wei: artificial light is basically the same as sunlight, and there is no difference in the growth of plants. The only difference is that if the plant is reddish, if you use the right spectrum, it will grow a normally red-leafed lettuce. Some people like it very much. Some people say it's not natural. People are the only animals that wear clothes.
Plant factory with the data, we adjust the light is good for people to produce ingredients, the sun in blue and red light ratio is fixed, but the lighting can let the ingredients we need more appear, but did not change the genes of vegetables, this is the ability of plant itself, we didn't change the genes of plants.
Nutrition is the terminal application of vegetables, some nutritional value higher, some nutrients is not what we need, when we need to plant some composition, can do it by physical condition to control, this is the benefits of plant factory, directional control the growth of vegetables is good for the body composition, or by changing the vegetables growing environment to adjust different flavors.
What about growing marijuana, which is illegal in China but legal in the Netherlands? How is cannabis growing going?
Mr. Chen: marijuana itself is a double-edged sword, and its value is indisputable. Different states in the United States have different laws depending on how the local government views the matter. Currently, if hemp is to be grown domestically, it must be licensed under some special license or in some special place.
Liu Yang: many states in the United States have legalized the marijuana market and now have mature lamps in use. And they are now looking for a more efficient LED lighting solution than high pressure sodium lamps.
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of LED and traditional light source metal halide lamp (HID) in plant lighting? How about the development trend of ceramic lamps in the domestic and foreign plant lighting market?
Thunder: high pressure sodium lamp has been used for a long time in agricultural production, LED just started to use, but as general lighting, LED market share is increasingly high, many traditional lamps have been replaced by LED, this is the inevitable trend of technology development. However, the spectral output of the metal halide lamp is relatively fixed and it is difficult to control the changes of the spectrum, so it is suitable for the growth of certain plants. Currently, metal halide lamp is widely used in tomato planting, but if it is a plant factory, LED is much better than it, and its spectrum is more suitable. However, at present, compared with metal halide lamp, the QE value of LED has no obvious advantage.
Fang wei: HID is difficult to use in vertical farms. One is its heat and the other is its volume. Inside the greenhouse, HID is difficult to compete with high pressure sodium lamp, because the tendency of the spectrum are not quite same, greenhouse artificial fill light all over the world are basically high pressure sodium lamp, LED the early application inside the greenhouse is Dutch, want to replace the high-pressure sodium lamp, but later found not feasible, high-pressure sodium lamp in the greenhouse is very high, about 4 or 5 meters height, a lamp cover a large area of the plant, below the LED is installed on the high light below will be a lot less, so now the Netherlands using a combination of these two ways, head lamp with high-pressure sodium lamp, plant and plant spacing between 15 and 20 cm use adjustable height of the LED,, Specifically, the leaves above the results are photographed. The combination of the two is very good, and the LED basically only needs red light.
7. What is the difference between hydroponic vegetables and plant plants? Will insects grow in vegetable plants?
Jiang jingjing: no matter the greenhouse or the indoor artificial light factory, will grow worms. The key is control, the greenhouse is a semi-manual control of the environment, open and close without good management, there will be insects in, usually large space and insects in. Plant factory management and greenhouses management strict conditions is not a level, we into plants, factories, people are to protect hair, another factory of air, water, plant are purified or filter, if in strict accordance with the plant factory management model, the probability of snake is very low, so the plant factory are not allowed to use pesticides. In the greenhouse, we can only try to reduce its pollution ratio, and hydroponics through nutrient solution is one of the methods.
How to guarantee its luminous flux density on the basis of different light quality? Plus, how do you make sure it's in the same intensity of light. For example, red and blue light are combined into the same power, and the blue light chip and red light chip voltage chip are different, different amounts seem to represent different light intensity, namely PPF is different, because the light flux is related to plant chlorophyll A and B.
Chen guangzhi: even if the same PPF, each tile is similar to the concept of luminous effect, different spectra will make different impacts on the growth of plants. Now many lamps sold in the market, many of which are measured by PPF per watt, I think this is not comprehensive, because it does not contain spectrum. Effective PPF is very important for plant growth spectrum.
As we all know, in the design of lamps and lanterns, any lamp down of light it is difficult to achieve full uniform, only in the production of lamps and lanterns of phase through the optical design implementation, as far as possible do light more evenly, such as for some linear modulation power in doing very good, if you are to fill light in greenhouses, requires more precise optical design.
8. During the study of plant lighting, will the light test conducted under the same PPFD and different PPFD lead to different final test results?
Fang wei: it is the same with PPFD. If PPFD has high or low and different spectra, the research results are not convincing. But it depends on the direction of the study, if you have the same thing with PPFD, different spectrum, that's the study of the spectrum; There are also some studies that show that PPFD is different, but energy consumption is the same, and the same lamp is normally used, for example, 5 lamps are lighted on each 20-watt lamp. By adjusting the height, the differences in the intensity of cultivation are compared, all of which should be considered as a whole.
I think there are several indicators that can be used to measure the overall efficiency of plant factories. The first one is to measure the amount after the lamp is installed. The indicator of the amount and the indicator of PPFD divided by watt is the indicator of the light source itself. How many photons are generated by the power consumption of the light source requires the measurement of PPFD on the cultivation surface, and the unit of PPFD is used as an indicator to measure the condition after installation.
Another indicator is electricity capacity. From planting vegetables to planting finished products, we can calculate the total amount of vegetables grown and divide it by the amount of electricity consumed. This indicator can be used to measure energy capacity, that is, how many vegetables are planted per degree of electricity.
The final indicator is the capacity of photons, and by looking at the growth performance of plants with the same number of photons across different spectra, you can immediately tell whether they're good or bad.